Directory Of Japanese Medical Device Distributors

Please contact us if you’d like to connect with any of the medical device distributors on this list or other Japanese distributors handling imported medical devices.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Based in Tokyo’s Bunkyo district, this centennial company specializes in the development, manufacture, and sale of medical devices, particularly focusing on anesthesia machines and ventilators for both human and veterinary use. With a history dating back to 1921, their product range encompasses anesthesia systems such as the PROVIDEND+i /+s, Anespirator A65, and various models of ventilators like the ART-800, alongside related accessories including vaporizers, anesthesia masks, and breathing circuits. They also offer a unique line of products for veterinary applications, including the Vetac 5 anesthesia machine and the Spiritus ventilator for animals. Renowned for their commitment to quality and innovation, the company has established a legacy of “Made in Japan” excellence, adhering to a philosophy of contributing to health and social welfare through high-quality, reliable medical solutions. Their extensive support network across Japan and global outreach, particularly in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa, underscores their dedication to meeting medical professionals’ needs and enhancing patient care worldwide.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Based in Tokyo, Japan, within the Bunkyo Ward, this medical device company specializes in the development, importation, manufacturing, and sales of equipment focused on respiratory health. With a compact team of approximately 10 employees, it offers a comprehensive range of products designed to meet various healthcare needs. Their product lineup includes respiratory function measurement devices, SpO2 sensors, O2 monitors, pulse oximeters, capnometers, and lung ventilators, alongside research, testing, and inspection equipment. They also provide affordable and high-performance SpO2 sensors, emphasizing their commitment to quality and innovation. The company has established a strong presence in the medical community, building long-standing collaborations with major hospitals and research institutions nationwide, as well as securing partnerships with leading international suppliers to ensure a broad and advanced product offering.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded in 1966 and headquartered in Iwata, Shizuoka Prefecture, this company has established itself as a leading provider of medical and welfare equipment, specifically focusing on bath-related solutions for hospitals and social welfare facilities. With over five decades in the industry, they have developed a comprehensive range of bathing solutions designed to cater to various needs, including beds for recumbent bathing, chairs for seated bathing, lift baths for easier access, individual baths for privacy, and shower baths for flexibility, along with a wide array of peripheral devices and hygiene management products. Their commitment to reducing the physical strain on caregivers and respecting the privacy of care recipients has driven them to innovate and supply products not just domestically but also to OEMs globally, reflecting their high technological capabilities and reliability.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded on January 18, 1951, and headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, this specialized trading company has dedicated itself to delivering the latest medical devices in the life sciences field. With a strong presence across Japan, including offices in major cities such as Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, Sapporo, Tohoku, and Chugoku-Shikoku, and a distribution center in Kasai, the company has been serving the medical industry for over seven decades. They have a broad portfolio of products, including MDI inhalation aid spacers, medical devices for prostate examination and treatment, and various other healthcare solutions. The company also engages in the import and sale of medical devices, catering to a wide range of healthcare facilities and research institutions across the country. With a commitment to medical safety and cost reduction, their product lineup addresses diverse medical needs from surgical and endoscopic room requirements to diagnostic tests, showcasing their dedication to enhancing patient care and medical practice efficiency.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded in December of Showa 10 (1935) with its roots tracing back to Taisho 3 (1914), this orthopedic supplies company, headquartered in Kitakyushu City, Yahata Higashi Ward, has established itself as a pioneer in the welfare equipment manufacturing industry. It is dedicated to connecting the present with the future through its innovative offerings. The company specializes in the production and sale of a wide range of products including prosthetics, orthotics, wheelchairs, seating devices, rehabilitation equipment, materials, care supplies, and medical devices. Their commitment to quality and innovation is further evidenced by their ISO 13485 certification for the design and manufacturing of cervical collars among other medical devices. Serving a significant clientele that includes municipalities across Fukuoka, Oita, Saga, Yamaguchi, Hiroshima Prefectures, as well as hospitals and facilities in Northern Kyushu and medical orthotic manufacturers nationwide, they have been a cornerstone in their community for decades. Additionally, they have been importing and supplying high-quality components and materials from over 20 international manufacturers to both their own manufacturing division and orthotic producers across Japan, ensuring the availability of the latest medical and technological advancements.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Since its establishment in December of Showa 10 (1935), with its origins dating back to Taisho 3 (1914), this pioneering company has dedicated itself to the mission of “saving small lives” by developing Japan’s first modern incubator. The company specializes in a wide range of medical equipment and supplies focused on perinatal care, including gynecological devices, obstetric devices, neonatal devices, nursing ward equipment, disposable medical products, and diagnostic and surgical instruments. Their comprehensive product offerings reflect a deep commitment to clinical experience and the latest technology, aiming to meet diverse needs across the medical field. With a focus on early treatment and rehabilitation, they leverage the latest facilities and technology to contribute significantly to perinatal medical care. Their dedication to innovation and quality in medical care continues to guide their contributions to medical advancements and patient care.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ As a member of the Itochu Group, this medical device specialty trading company has been committed to “supporting health and prosperity” since its establishment. With a corporate philosophy centered around contributing to the improvement of Quality of Life (QOL) for all, it provides cutting-edge medical devices to medical sites globally. Boasting approximately 50 years of experience, the company has built strong relationships with manufacturers worldwide, bringing innovative medical devices across various fields to Japan’s medical scene. Their product range is extensive, covering cardiovascular surgery, heart failure treatment, cardiology, endovascular treatment, neuro intervention, ultrasound accessories, infection prevention, anesthesiology, wound care, digestive endoscopy, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), scalp cooling systems for chemotherapy patients, and advanced holographic imaging for preoperative planning. Headquartered with a strong foundation in quality policy and a commitment to transparency in relationships with medical institutions, it aims to continue being a valuable partner in healthcare, offering total medical solutions that span from clinical development to post-marketing quality and safety management of medical devices.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded in October 1965, this Tokyo-based company specializes in providing medical devices and services focused on respiratory care. With a mission to serve life and health, they aim to contribute to the development and dissemination of medical care in the respiratory field by delivering trusted devices and services. Their product range includes respiratory function testing devices, electronic spirometers, comprehensive respiratory resistance measuring devices, airway hypersensitivity measuring devices, sleep polysomnographs, ventilators, oxygen concentrators, and CPAP devices. They support asthma, COPD, and other lung diseases evaluation through exhaled NO tests and spirometry, offer solutions for sleep medicine, particularly in diagnosing and treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) with overnight polysomnography (PSG) tests and CPAP therapy, and provide comprehensive approaches to home mechanical ventilation therapy (HMV). Additionally, they propose a new treatment option, Bronchial Thermoplasty (BT), for patients over 18 with severe asthma not adequately controlled by existing drug therapies. Their commitment extends to emergency contacts for artificial respirators and home oxygen, indicating a deep involvement in home-based respiratory therapy.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Based in Tokyo, Japan, with additional offices across the country including Hokkaido, Sendai, Ibaraki, Chiba, Gunma, Saitama, Tochigi, Yokohama, Shizuoka, Nagoya, Osaka, Fukui, Hiroshima, Okayama, Kyushu, and several service points, this enterprise has been a pivotal player in the medical device industry since its inception on April 1, 1986. Specializing in the import, manufacture, sale, repair, maintenance, rental, and leasing of medical devices, related peripherals, and materials, the company boasts an extensive product portfolio. This includes a wide range of advanced management medical devices for arrhythmia and ischemia such as pacemakers, ICDs, electrode and ablation catheters, 3D mapping systems, as well as medical imaging products like video management systems, remote video distribution systems, surveillance camera systems, and operating room video systems. Furthermore, it is committed to the research and development of medical devices and systems, offering consulting services and contributing significantly to healthcare and medical device consulting.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Established on June 21, 1990, with its headquarters in Taito, Tokyo, this company specializes in the import, OEM sales, and distribution of medical devices across various sectors including Life Science, System Integration, Medical Equipment, and Advanced Environmental Systems. Their product lineup is extensive, covering areas such as In Vitro Diagnostics (IVD), Genetic Testing (GNT), Bio Imaging Solutions (BIS), Clinical Laboratory Systems (CLS), Healthcare Networks (HCN), emergency anesthesia, cardiology, rehabilitation, neurophysical therapy, and more. They are also involved in the development and sales of life and environmental systems with a focus on water and air quality, contributing towards SDGs. With a network of seven domestic locations and a team of 76 employees, they reported a revenue of 1.98 billion yen in 2020. Their business operations encompass a wide range of services from the import and sales of medical devices, development and manufacturing of bio-sensors and millimeter-wave radar systems, to providing comprehensive solutions in the medical and environmental sectors.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Based in Bunkyo, Tokyo, this comprehensive medical device distributor specializes in providing a wide range of medical and nursing care products aimed at improving health and welfare. Since its establishment, the company has been dedicated to responding to the diversifying needs of 21st-century healthcare, emphasizing the importance of listening humbly to the voices of related industries and the general public. Their product portfolio includes emergency carts, lab coats, wheelchair scales, audiometers, resuscitators, suction machines, disposable items, beds from renowned manufacturers, shadowless lamps, examination tables, autoclaves, sealers, slipper sterilizer dispensers, and more, catering to various hospital departments such as emergency, outpatient, ward, office, and waiting areas. They also deal in specialized equipment for surgery, measurement, and body examination devices, showcasing a commitment to offering kinder, more user-friendly medical devices through continuous research and improvement.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded on August 29, 1946, and headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, this company specializes in the import and sales of medical devices, primarily focusing on the field of cardiology. With a dedicated team of 124 employees and a capital of 20 million yen, they have built a solid foundation in the medical equipment industry. Their product range includes advanced medical devices for cardiovascular surgery, cardiology, anesthesiology, vascular surgery, nephrology, and more, embracing cutting-edge technologies such as electrocardiographs, X-ray devices, artificial organs, diagnostic and therapeutic equipment. Over the years, they have evolved from their initial focus on domestic steel distribution and various import-export activities to become a key player in providing a wide array of medical equipment that supports critical and specialized medical fields.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Located in Tokyo, this company is a distinguished manufacturer and distributor of medical devices and equipment, established on February 9, 1972. With a capital of 79 million yen, they are situated in the Bunkyo district, a hub for medical innovation. The company boasts a diverse product lineup that includes surgical instruments, brain oxygen saturation monitors, and an array of medical and laboratory equipment. They operate under various licenses for the manufacturing, sales, and repair of Class 1 to 4 medical devices, alongside pharmaceutical sales and the handling of deleterious substances. Their commitment to quality is underscored by ISO13485 certification, reflecting their adherence to international standards in medical device manufacturing and safety.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅Β Founded in 1939, this Tokyo-based company has grown to become a leading provider of medical electronic equipment, boasting a workforce of 3,757 employees across 226 locations. With a broad catalog of over 2,000 products, their offerings include medical devices, home medical equipment, Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), and comprehensive system solutions. Their dedication to innovation and quality in healthcare technology is demonstrated through their extensive range of products designed to meet the diverse needs of medical professionals and patients alike, ensuring a strong commitment to improving medical care and outcomes globally.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅Β Established in 1977 and headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, this company specializes in the sale of medical devices. With a dedicated team of 120 employees, they focus on providing a wide range of medical equipment, including endoscopy-related products, angio-related products, medical consumables, vascular imaging devices, neurosurgical equipment, orthopedic devices, surgical instruments, devices for plastic surgery and dermatology, electrosurgical equipment, and medical education and clinical training devices. They pride themselves on selecting high-quality, cost-effective medical materials and consumables from around the world, offering them to medical institutions through a straightforward online sales and distribution model aimed at delivering high-quality products at reasonable prices to healthcare professionals.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Established in June 2004 and headquartered in Saitama, Japan, the company specializes in contributing to healthcare and well-being through its diverse range of medical and health-related products. With a capital of 32.1 million yen and facilities in the region, it engages in medical equipment distribution, oxygen concentrator supply, pharmaceutical application proxy services, and international trade. Their product portfolio includes portable oxygen concentrators, mesh nebulizers, ultrasonic probe covers, non-contact thermometers, pulse oximeters, vial adapter series, vein visualization devices, and safety syringes with needlestick prevention mechanisms. The company is dedicated to offering safe and reliable products and services that contribute to global health and safety, leveraging international collaborations to foster a healthy economic cycle worldwide.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅Β Founded in June 1990 and headquartered in Arakawa, Tokyo, the enterprise specializes in importing and distributing medical devices and welfare-related products. With a capital of 50 million yen, it operates a warehouse in Arakawa and has a business scope that includes the sale of distilled drinking water. The company’s product portfolio encompasses pressure distribution and hygiene mattresses, evacuation sheets, positioning pillows, partition screen systems, liquid absorbent sheets, and drinking water along with related equipment. It has established significant partnerships with suppliers from Sweden, the UK, Germany, and Turkey, offering cutting-edge solutions for enhancing the quality of life and early mobilization for patient independence. The firm is committed to supporting healthcare environments by providing essential products that meet the evolving needs of medical and welfare sectors.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅Β Established on May 16, 1974, and headquartered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, the company has grown to employ 300 people, including executives. It specializes in the development, import, sales, rental, and maintenance of medical devices, serving a wide range of clients including university hospitals, national, public, and private hospitals, as well as medical equipment dealers. With offices spanning across Japan, from Sapporo to Kumamoto, it has a national presence. The company offers a broad spectrum of medical equipment categories such as artificial respirators, emergency resuscitation equipment, clinical medical education tools, monitors, surgical instruments, diagnostic devices, temperature management systems, inspection equipment, masks, and facility equipment among others. It caters to various clinical departments including emergency centers, operating rooms, intensive care units (ICU), and neonatal intensive care units (NICU), ensuring comprehensive coverage of medical and healthcare needs.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Established in June 2004 and headquartered in Saitama, Japan, the company specializes in contributing to healthcare and well-being through its diverse range of medical and health-related products. With a capital of 32.1 million yen and facilities in the region, it engages in medical equipment distribution, oxygen concentrator supply, pharmaceutical application proxy services, and international trade. Their product portfolio includes portable oxygen concentrators, mesh nebulizers, ultrasonic probe covers, non-contact thermometers, pulse oximeters, vial adapter series, vein visualization devices, and safety syringes with needlestick prevention mechanisms. The company is dedicated to offering safe and reliable products and services that contribute to global health and safety, leveraging international collaborations to foster a healthy economic cycle worldwide.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅Β Located in Tokyo, this company is a leader in the provision of medical devices and materials, hospital equipment sales, rental, maintenance, and comprehensive healthcare facility consulting. Since its establishment in 1951, it has grown to employ over 500 individuals and reports an impressive annual revenue, reflecting its significant role in the healthcare industry. The company offers a broad range of products and services, including advanced medical devices and hospital equipment for diagnosis and treatment, surgical and sterilization equipment, and disposables, covering approximately 300,000 items. It excels in providing value-added services by continuously updating its product lineup to meet the evolving demands of medical professionals and institutions.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅Β Established in 1979, the company has been a pioneer in providing medical devices for clinical medicine and experimental equipment for basic medical research. Located in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, it has been at the forefront of medical innovation, introducing products like the carotid endarterectomy shunt, which is now widely used in hospitals, and developing the world’s most advanced nitric oxide measuring device based on electrode method, utilized by researchers globally and cited in numerous academic papers. The company’s product lineup includes cutting-edge devices such as the Sensapex In Vivo Rig for Neuropixels recording, pressure control systems for glass electrode reuse in experiments, and MappingLab’s mapping system for electrical mapping, all designed to meet the complex demands of modern medical and research environments. With a commitment to enhancing clinical and research outcomes, their offerings span from diagnostic and treatment devices to advanced medical and research equipment, supporting a broad range of medical disciplines and contributing significantly to the advancement of medical science and healthcare quality.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ This company, established on October 19, 1994, is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with offices in Sendai, Nagoya, Osaka, and Kyushu, demonstrating its commitment to accessibility and local support across a broad geographical area. With a mission to rapidly and widely disseminate the latest rehabilitation concepts from a global perspective, it strives daily to deliver realistic rehabilitation concepts that can be practically implemented in society. The company places a high emphasis on diversity and positivity, aiming to empower individuals irrespective of age, gender, or disability, thereby contributing to the vitality of both society and the corporate world. Its product range is extensive, covering the needs of physical therapy, occupational therapy, exercise therapy, and more. This includes advanced equipment and systems for assessment, research, motion analysis (e.g., VICON, DELSYS), therapeutic devices (e.g., Intelect Neo, HUR), exercise therapy tools (e.g., REDCORD, LOKOMAT), as well as mats, balls, and balance-related products. Through its commitment to innovation and the happiness of its employees, the company continues to support the rehabilitation industry’s growth and the creation of a vibrant society.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Established in 1976, this company specializes in importing and providing high-quality medical devices, with a strong focus on ophthalmology. It has built its reputation on partnering with leading international manufacturers to deliver cutting-edge medical technologies to the domestic market. Celebrating over four decades of service, the company is driven by a mission to enhance the Quality of Vision (QoV) for the population, offering a broad range of products that cater to various medical specialties. This includes sophisticated examination and diagnostic instruments, surgical devices, and optical equipment designed for use in ophthalmology, orthopedics, plastic and reconstructive surgery, neurosurgery, ENT, and dentistry. Through its commitment to improving medical care standards, the company demonstrates an unwavering dedication to contributing positively to society with quality products and services.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded on February 6, 1981, and headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, this company operates as both a manufacturer and distributor of medical devices, specializing in the cardiology and cardiovascular surgery fields. With over 40 years of experience, it supports medical practices across Japan through approximately 50 sales offices and several logistics centers and factories, including Haneda Logistics Center, Kansai Logistics Center, Toda Factory, Oyama Factory, and Ichihara Factory. The company is committed to improving patient care by importing advanced medical technologies from abroad and developing and manufacturing products in-house to meet the specific needs of the domestic medical community. Its product portfolio encompasses devices for cardiac rhythm management, electrophysiology/ablation, cardiovascular and endografting surgery, gastrointestinal intervention, structural heart disease intervention, and neurovascular intervention. With a vision to contribute to a healthier society through the provision of the latest and most optimal medical devices, the company is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange’s Prime Market under the securities code 7575.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅Β Established in 1973 as Hospital Service and later rebranded to its current identity in 1981, this Tokyo-based company has evolved into a leading developer, manufacturer, and distributor of medical devices, with a significant focus on orthopedic products. Operating with a dual approach that combines the functions of a distributor and a development-driven manufacturer, it has successfully met the expanding needs of the medical field by providing valuable medical devices. Its comprehensive product lineup includes artificial joints, spinal fixation devices, and bone fusion materials, catering to various medical conditions such as degenerative joint diseases, spinal disorders, and bone fractures. By maintaining a strong commitment to contributing to medical care, it balances the characteristics of both a trading company and a manufacturer to support health and wellness globally. The company also emphasizes dynamic business expansion and innovative marketing strategies to accurately capture and respond to the rapidly evolving medical industry and new era demands.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded on June 1, 1992, with its headquarters located in Hiroshima City, Hiroshima Prefecture, this company is a prominent provider of medical devices, specializing in the sales and importation of medical and scientific equipment. With a dedicated team of 126 employees as of April 2023 and a robust annual revenue of 13.1 billion yen for the fiscal year ending March 2023, it has established itself as a key player in the medical industry. The company prides itself on offering a wide array of products catering to various medical needs, including cardiovascular devices, catheters, artificial organs, endoscopic surgical items, dialysis products, and surgical supplies. It operates across 11 national locations, ensuring rapid and efficient service to meet customer demands for quality and safety. Their product portfolio spans several categories, notably featuring foot care and baby health care products, alongside a specialized focus on surgical instruments, urology and gynecology related products, interventional devices, and more, underscoring their commitment to enhancing healthcare through innovation and quality management.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Since its establishment in November 1982, this group, comprising companies specializing in importing, manufacturing, and selling medical devices, has been dedicated to delivering high-quality medical equipment to healthcare professionals in Japan, aiming to contribute to the advancement of Japanese medical technology and enrich the medical environment. Headquartered in Osaka, Japan, with additional operations facilitated through a logistics center in Okayama, the group focuses on anesthesia and respiratory systems, surgical devices, and a range of other medical supplies. Its diverse product offerings include surgical instruments, urology and gynecology products, foot care items, intervention-related products, and more, ensuring a comprehensive approach to modern healthcare needs. The commitment to quality and customer satisfaction is evident in their rigorous quality control measures, including thorough inspections and maintenance services provided for imported and domestically sourced products, all managed from their Okayama Logistics Center. This center also highlights the group’s commitment to environmental sustainability, notably through its solar power generation initiatives aimed at reducing carbon emissions and promoting eco-friendly operations.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Established in the early 1980s, this company specializes in providing comprehensive support for medical clinic startups, focusing on the importation and distribution of laparoscopic surgery devices and a broad spectrum of general medical products. With a strategic presence in key urban areas to serve a wide range of healthcare professionals efficiently, their expertise extends to offering cutting-edge surgical and gynecological devices, such as disposable cervical dilators and uterine manipulation sets, as well as advanced tools for infertility treatments. Their extensive product portfolio caters to various medical fields, including surgical illumination, medical beds, orthopedic equipment, anesthesia machines, diagnostic imaging systems, microscopes, sterilizers, and endoscopy systems, supporting the healthcare industry’s need for high-quality, reliable medical solutions and equipment.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded in March of Taisho 13 (1924) and formally established in January of Showa 25 (1950), this Tokyo-based company has evolved into a significant player in the medical industry, celebrating its 99th anniversary in 2023. With a capital of 40 million yen and a dedicated team of 61 employees, it specializes in manufacturing, selling, and importing/exporting medical machinery and equipment. Their product range is extensive, covering areas such as washer-disinfectors, cart washers, RO devices for automatic cleaning, drying devices for respiratory circuits, medical glass syringes, and disposable ophthalmic injection needles, among others. The company also boasts a strong presence across Japan, with sales offices in Osaka and Fukuoka, service centers in Okayama and Tokai, and a distribution center in Tokyo, ensuring comprehensive nationwide coverage and service.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded in 1951 and based in Hyogo, Japan, with a Tokyo branch office, this company specializes in the development, manufacturing, and sales of optomechatronics technology-based medical, information, and industrial equipment. Starting as “Konan Camera Research Institute” in 1947 and undergoing several transformations, it emerged in its current form after merging in 2001. With a capital of 68.7 million yen and a team of 51 employees, it focuses on creating and distributing non-contact corneal endothelial cell photography devices, automatic flaw detection equipment for industrial use, and importing advanced medical devices like visual evoked response measurement devices, color vision and contrast sensitivity testing devices, and lens mapping systems. Their product line supports the vision of contributing to safer and healthier societies through predictive and preventive healthcare innovations.

πŸ‡―πŸ‡΅ Founded on June 8, 1985, M.E.Technica is headquartered in Toshima, Tokyo, with additional offices in Sapporo, Sendai, Nagoya, Osaka, and Fukuoka. The company specializes in the import and sale of medical equipment, focusing on a wide range of products for ophthalmology, otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat), and veterinary medicine. Its product lineup includes handheld tonometers, sterilization trays, cleaning equipment, and more, catering to the needs of medical professionals in various fields. With 42 employees and a capital of 20 million yen, M.E.Technica is dedicated to providing high-quality medical devices and has established itself as a trusted name in the healthcare industry.